For a Technological Civilization, We Must Have Metals

ambient temperatures, atmosphere, beams, copper, ductility, earth, electric age, electric generators, electric motors, electrical conductivity, electrical power, electricity, fire, Fire-Maker series, girders, industrial society, Intelligent Design, Maya, metals, respiration, steel, Technology, tensile strength
It is very doubtful that any beings in the universe could develop a civilization remotely comparable with our own without the use of metals. Source
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By Design, Earth Is a Planet Fit for Fire

ambient conditions, atmosphere, atmospheric pressure, civilization, combustion, Douglas Drysdale, earth, Edward McHale, fire, fire spread, fire sustainability, Fire-Maker series, gases, gravity, Intelligent Design, mankind, metabolism, metals, Mount Everest, NASA, nitrogen, oxidative metabolism, oxygen, Physics, Earth & Space, respiration, Stone Age, Technology
As we have seen so far in this series, fire was an absolutely crucial component in humanity’s rise to civilization and technology. Source
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Is Space Travel Our Destiny?

Abraham Loeb, atmosphere, BIO-Complexity, distance, Hubble Space Telescope, hydrogen, interstellar dust, interstellar ship, Mike Hippke, Milky Way, Neptune, oxidizers, oxygen, Physics, Earth & Space, Proxima Centauri, rockets, satellite TV, solar system, space travel, super-earths, The Privileged Planet, Tsiolkovsky equation, Uranus
A few days ago I published the paper “The Solar System: Favored for Space Travel” in the journal BIO-Complexity. I thought it would be helpful for me to give a short summary of the paper to Evolution News readers. I was motivated to do the study after two papers were published in 2018 on the difficulty of launching rockets from super-earths. Super-earths are the most common type of planet that are being discovered around exoplanets. They are somewhat loosely defined as being larger and more massive than Earth but smaller and less massive than Uranus or Neptune. From observations, super-earths seem to transition from rocky to gas-dominated composition above 1.5 times the size of Earth.  Two Studies Together, the two studies not only showed that it is more difficult to…
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